All informational handouts are copyrighted and are for our clients' use and knowledge. Informational handouts cannot be reproduced in part or whole without express written permission of Arlington Animal Hospital, Inc. Informational handouts require AdobeReader.
The patella is commonly known as the kneecap and it sit in a bony groove on the front of the femur called the trochlear groove. When the patella moves out of the trochlear groove it is termed patellar luxation. Patellar luxation can occur to the inside of the stifle or knee (medial patellar luxation or MPL), to the outside of the stifle (lateral patellar luxation or LPL) or both. Patellar luxation is graded in severity from 1 - 4 and can either be non-traumatic (congenital or developmental misalignment) or traumatic. Non-traumatic patellar luxation is hereditary and passed from parent to offspring. Although the end result is patellar luxation, there are many different underlying causes as to why the patella luxates. Certain breeds are at risk for patellar luxation and patellar luxation can be a severe, crippling disease when left untreated. Predisposing factors for patellar luxation also exist such as body weight, underlying orthopedic conditions, etc. Less severe grades of patellar luxation can often progress to more severe grades making patellar luxation a progressive disease. At Arlington Animal Hospital, we have performed thousands of patellar stabilization procedures and we know how to diagnose and determine the best course of action in a fast and economical manner. The will enable your pet to have the best outcome possible. Click on our icon below to download an informational handout about patellar luxation.
Patellar stabilization when done with less severe grades has a greater than 92% success rate. However, any present osteoarthritic disease at the time of stabilization is irreversible. Success rate and further progression of arthritic disease is highly influenced by the grade of the patella luxation when stabilization occurs. The earlier the patella is stabilized will result in a higher success rate and a lower rate of osteoarthritic progression. Unlike many other orthopedic corrections, patella stabilization can involve a single to mulitple techniques to provide proper stabilization. Techniques vary from the simple to the more complex based upon severity or grade of patellar luxation. Arlington Animal Hospital has provided advanced orthopedics for over 25 years with a long and successful track record. Our years of experience will ensure the best possible outcome for your pet. At our hospital we utilize only the highest grade implants when need for patellar stabilization and procedures are performed under strict sterile conditions to minimize complications. Our Click on our icon below to download an informational handout about patella stabilization.
Cranial Cruciate Ligament Injury
The Cranial Cruciate Ligament (CCL) is a vital ligament tucked deeply inside the stifle (knee). Its key role is stabilization of the upper femur and lower tibia so that upon movement of the limb the stifle is kept in full stability. Compromise of the CCL result in instability of the stifle so that movement of the limb results in a sliding motion called drawer motion. Drawer motion results in crushing of small cartilaginous cushions between the femur and tibia called the menisci. Drawer motion and crushing of the menisci is very painful to the animal and it will often limp or become non-weight bearing on the limb. This may cause the contralateral or non-affected limb to overload and rupture its CCL. The CCL is often used interchangebly with the term Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL), however the term ACL is more commonly used to describe human anatomy. With human ACL injury, conservative treatment is a viable option because weight distribution down the limb is linear (in a straight line) from the body to the foot. Picturing weight distrubtion from the side in a human there is an "L" shaped weight drop from the hip to the foot with the knee locked upon full extension. The end result is that the ACL is not under load when the leg is locked in an extended position and weight is placed on the limb. However in the animal, the limb forms a number of suspensions from the hip to the paw. Picturing weight distribution from the side in an animal, there is more a reverse "Z" shaped weight drop from the hip to the paw. The end result is that the CCL is always under load when the limb is in full extension and weight is placed on the limb. Untreated CCL injury is a debilating, crippling disease when left untreated and the animal is in pain when weight is placed on the limb. Surgical stabilization is always the gold standard in treatment of CCL injury. There are a number of breeds that are predisposed to CCL injury with large breeds being overrepresented due to their significant body weight. There are also predisposing factors that can contribute to CCL degeneration and injury such a obesity, steroid use, etc. There are also a number of different surgical procedures to stabilize CCL injury, each with their own success and complication rates. The most advanced surgical procedure at this time is the Tibial Tubersosity Advancement or TTA. Prognosis with surgical stabilization is highly successful for full recovery and normal use of the limb. At Arlington Animal Hospital, we have performed thousands of CCL stabilization procedures and we know how to diagnose and determine the best course of action in a fast and economical manner. The will enable your pet to have the best outcome possible. Click on our icon below to download an informational handout about CCL injury.
Cranial Cruciate Ligament Stabilization - Tibial Tuberosity Advancement (TTA)
The most successful method of CCL stabilization with the highest success rate and the lowest rate of progressive osteoarthritic disease post-surgically is the Tibial Tubersosity Advancement or TTA. The TTA is the newest and most advanced method of CCL stabilization at this time. The TTA involves an osteotomy (bony cut) at the front of the tibia and implantation of a plate and cage into the osteotomy. All implants are measured specifically for each animal prior to and during the procedure. The TTA procedure essentially neutralizes the need for the CCL and makes the stifle stable under load. The complication rate for the TTA is low as the osteotomy is made in the frontal, non-weight bearing portion of the tibia unlike a similar procedure called the Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy (TPLO) in which the osteotomy is made on the back, weight bearing portion of the tibia. Arlington Animal Hospital has provided advanced orthopedics for over 25 years with a long and successful track record. Our years of experience will ensure the best possible outcome for your pet. At our hospital we utilize only the highest grade medical titanium implants from Kyon in Switzerland, the company that researched and developed the TTA procedure. All implants are manufactured to exacting specifications by Kyon under design by Dr. Slobodan Tepic, founder of the TTA procedure. We do not use inferior stainless steel implants and all TTA procedures are performed under strict sterile conditions to minimize complications. Click on our icon below to download an informational handout about CCL stabilization utilizing the TTA procedure.